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Mechanisms of Closed-loop SCS: 5 Years of Patient Data

October 21, 2021 (PDT) @ 5:30 pm 6:30 pm PDT


Join Drs. Eric J. Grigsby, John Parker, and Lawrence Poree for a conversation on closed-loop spinal cord stimulation (SCS). 

  • What are evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs)? 
  • How are they used to create a closed-loop neuromodulation system? 
  • What can continuous monitoring the neural responses tell us about the presence and influence of pharmacological agents? 

Additional Resources

  • Brooker, C., Russo, M., Cousins, M. J., Taylor, N., Holford, L., Martin, R., … & Parker, J. (2021). ECAP‐Controlled Closed‐Loop Spinal Cord Stimulation Efficacy and Opioid Reduction Over 24‐Months: Final Results of the Prospective, Multicenter, Open‐Label Avalon Study. Pain Practice.
  • Heijmans, L., & Joosten, E. A. (2020). Mechanisms and mode of action of spinal cord stimulation in chronic neuropathic pain. Postgraduate medicine, 132(sup3), 17-21.
  • Parker, J., Karantonis, D., & Single, P. (2020). Hypothesis for the mechanism of action of ECAP-controlled closed-loop systems for spinal cord stimulation. Healthcare Technology Letters7(3), 76-80.


  • Dr. Lawrence Poree, MD, PhD. MPH, Clinical Professor, Department of Anesthesia, University of California at San Francisco (UCSF)
  • Dr. Eric J. Grigsby, MD, MBA, Founder & CEO, Neurovations: A Patient Care and Innovation Company
  • John Parker, PhD, Founder and Chief Science Officer, Saluda Medical

Dr. Eric Grigsby, MD, MBA is Chief Executive Officer and Founder of Neurovations.  For over three decades, Dr. Grigsby has focused his clinical career on academia and private practice. Today, in addition to busy practices, surgery centers, education divisions and labs, Dr. Grigsby guides research and innovation at Neurovations.

Dr Grigsby has been seminally involved in the majority of the interventional devices and therapies used in the field of pain management. He guides start-ups and industry-leading companies through the innovation, discovery and clinical research process which includes access to sites for clinical investigation in pain and neurologic disease. 

The Neurovations Education division holds world-class programs and ACCME accredited conferences in Pain and Neuroscience.  Additionally, Neurovations Education helps companies and clinicians develop and learn surgical therapies.  Dr. Grigsby’s non-profit foundation, HealthRoots, is committed to community health and innovation for underserved patients and communities.

Originally from Knoxville, Tennessee, Dr. Grigsby is a graduate of Brown University with an undergraduate degree in Biology and Economics. He completed medical school at Boston University School of Medicine and residency training in Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. He received his Master’s in Business Administration in Health Sector Management from Duke University.

John Parker, PhD, Founder and Chief Scientific Officer, founded the Implant Systems team at NICTA that developed the closed-loop feedback technology. Dr. Parker has over 20 years of experience in medical devices, including 13 years at Cochlear Limited, where he served in the role of Chief Technology Officer / executive member of the board of directors.

Dr. Parker has experience in working in every aspect of commercialization of R&D, from pure research through to full industrialization. John has an academic background (PhD ANU) and has worked in both Australian and international universities. Has authored numerous scientific publications and patents. He is an ATSE fellow, Harvard business School (PMD) graduate, Docent at the Royal Institute of technology in Stockholm Sweden, ATSE Clunies Ross Medallist (2010) and Adjunct Professor UNSW School of Biomedical Engineering.

Lawrence Poree, MD, PhD, MPH began his neuromodulation career as a basic science researcher at UC Berkeley where he investigated the analgesic properties of CNS hormones as part of his doctoral thesis.  He continued his research in neuromodulation at Johns Hopkins University in the department of Biomedical Engineering where he investigated the neural pathways involved in spinal cord stimulation and the sympathetic nervous system.   He decided to apply his research to medical practice and enrolled at Stanford University where he earned his medical degree and completed his residency in anesthesia while continuing to conduct research on the analgesic properties of alpha-2 agonists.  He then completed an interventional pain fellowship at UCSF.  

He founded and served as medical director of a private practice comprehensive pain management clinic for the next 15 years.  During this time, he consulted for various neuromodulation companies in the development of novel neuromodulation devices.  He returned to academia to head the neuromodulation program at the University Of California at San Francisco Pain Management Center. 

For the past 8 years he has served on the North American Neuromodulation Society (NANS) Board of Directors.